Ryan & Harrison (2000) affirm the importance of considering social subsystems in the information technology (IT) investment-decision processes where lack of consideration leads to reduced optimality of IT as well as the investment choices made. However, the author also reveals the potential negative effects tied to social subsystem costs which reduce anticipated IT payoffs. With regards to BI implementation, a social subsystem context alone would focus on enhancing efficiency of specific social subsystems in BI implementation without integration or the support of technical systems in terms of various technological tools and techniques. In this case, leadership and decision making still flow from senior management based on the scientific management concept, which limits vital input from relevant stakeholders. However, a socio-technical system context shifts control and learning to firm members through participative group processes aided by technological tools like virtual networks, among others and defined by elements such as work group autonomy and self-regulation. MacKrell & Van den Boogaard (2012), propose a socio-technical framework in the implementation of a suitable information system (IS) that will enhance organizational decision making in not-for-profit organizations, with regards to BI in a society where information is a vital resource. The appeal for a total socio-technical system is that it integrates social IS subsystems and technical IS subsystems which work together to maximize system benefits subsequently leading to a strategic alignment of vital firm resources including people, processes and technologies. By enhancing social connections through technological tools such as social networks and chat rooms, a socio-technical context would prove the best context for BI implementation compared to a social subsystem context alone where social subsystems work in isolation. On the other hand, socio-technical systems offer enhanced social connectivity which, with regards to BI implementation, would enhance technology adoption as well as better collaboration between and among people and systems. Therefore, a total social-technical system is more efficient and effective because it integrates social subsystems and technical IS subsystems which enhances participative decision making and enhanced group relations which is in line with dynamic changes in the modern workplace.
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