Estrogen in Drinking Water

Published: 2021-07-03 15:15:05
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Category: Nutrition

Type of paper: Essay

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Over the years, studies have been conducted to establish the effects of estrogen found in drinking water on human as well as aquatic health. Research has established that estrogen from oral contraceptives, especially Ethynyl-Estradiol or EE2 and excreted naturally occurring E2 finds its way into rivers and streams. However, the potential of the levels of the estrogen in drinking water to cause adverse effects to human beings is debatable. This paper explores the topic of estrogen in drinking water and its effects on onset of puberty.
Levels of Estrogen in Drinking Water
Various studies have concluded that the levels of estrogen in drinking water are negligible and not likely to have significance in human health (Christensen, 1998). Compared to endogenously produced estrogen, risk of health effects from environmental sources of estrogen was found to be negligible (Laurenson et al., 2014). According to Webb et al. (2003), indirect exposure to synthetic estrogen EE2 in worst-case scenarios was 3 to 4 times lower, in orders of magnitude, than endogenously produced E2. In addition, dietary exposure to estrogen such as from dairy products is higher than environmental exposure especially from drinking water. Dietary exposure was found to be the primary pathway for exposure to estrogen except for women who take estrogen as a contraceptive (Caldwell et al., 2010).
Furthermore, the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) in drinking water are a bit lower than in surface water since intakes of drinking water are on
References
Caldwell, D.J., Mastrocco, N.E., Johnston, J., Yekel, H., Pfeiffer, D., Hoyt, M’& Anderson, P.D. (2010). An assessment of potential exposure and risk from estrogens in drinking water. Environmental Health Perspective, 118(3), 338-44.
Christensen, FM. (1998). Pharmaceuticals in the environment’a human risk? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 28(3), 212’221.
Laurenson, P.J., Bloom, R.A., Page, S., & Sadrieh, N. (2014). Ethinyl estradiol and other human pharmaceutical estrogens in the aquatic environment: a review of recent risk assessment data. The AAPS Journal, 16(2), 299-310.
Webb, S., Ternes, T., Gibert, M., & Olejniczak, K. (2003). Indirect human exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water. Toxicology Letters, 142(3), 157’167.

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