The genetic cause and gene-environment interaction to health conditions have been in the study over the years. Molecular technology studies show that the genetic disorders are inherited from the parents, mostly the autosomal dominance, Mendelian disorders. The scientific research on such ailments as diabetes has been limited; this paper will primarily discuss the Genetic and Gene-Environment Effect related to diabetes. The primary aim of this research is to explore the genetic effects and the gene-environment interaction associated with diabetes; the most common, type 2 diabetes. Consequently, the paper will consider the evaluation of the risk factors and protective factors for effective management of the disease.
Like other genetic disorders, type 2 diabetes can be caused by the genetic and environmental factors. Scientific research shows that the type 2 diabetes is more related to a gene mutation. Scientific research such as (NIH, 2018), Shows that carries of variation may not be affected by diabetes; however, those with diabetes always carry one or more of the modification. There is various risk associated with the cause of diabetes; such include the numerous mutations of the genes controlling the level of glucose. The glucose level is determined by the production of insulin and glucose-insulin conversion regulation. Research shows that TCFL2 initiates secretion of insulin and production of glucose; the ABCC8 and CAPN10 also regulate insulin in the body. Consequently, movement of glucose is controlled by GLUT2. All these genes are related to risks of type 2 diabetes.
Considerably, there are various pre-dispositions and factors within the family history which can help in protecting one from diabetes or increase the risk of getting diabetes. For example, the particular lifestyle of some families can lead to obesity due to either their eating lifestyle or exercise habits. This is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes since it will be difficult to control the blood sugar level in the body. It is vital for family history screening to determine the susceptibility of the family members to the risk of diabetes (Valeriya, & Markku, 2013).
Gene-environment variation and lifestyle can influence the risks of type 2 diabetes through directly or indirectly affecting the production ability of insulin in the body. Some of the standard conditions which can predispose people to diabetes include obesity, gestational diabetes and the resistance to insulin in the body. It is important to note that particular lifestyle can be a risk factor for diabetes. Such include smoking of the cigarette, poor eating habit, physical fitness and lack of enough sleep (Ershow, 2015). The typical environment factors which can lead to the risks involve unhealthful food, barriers to active physical activities for fitness and dominant chemical pollution in the environment. Most of these factors as contamination can lead to gene mutations thus causing the risk of diabetes. Also, some of the social, environmental factors can also lead to the risks; such include social isolation leading to stress.
To sum up, the paper has successfully taken into account of genetic effect and Gene-Environment Interaction about diabetes. Basically, the paper focused on type 2 diabetes since it is the most common type of diabetes, causing high mortality rate across the world. The most critical concept in Genetic and Gene-Environment Effect is to understand the susceptibility to the risk factors and to develop an appropriate lifestyle and to update both the environmental and social environmental factors. Consequently, it is essential for the healthcare sector to act in control of the risk factors. In response to this, the nursing practice can be applied in creating awareness and offering medical care to the affected individuals.